Education in Russia /
System of education in brief /
Russian Educational System today /
Management and administration
Through August 1996, there were two federal (state) bodies that exercised management and administration over the educational system in the country: the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation and the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Higher Education.
The Ministry of Education was in charge of the elaboration and implementation of state policy in the field of pre-school, general, and vocational education as well as of complementary education at the corresponding levels. The State Committee for Higher Education was responsible for the elaboration and implementation of state policy in the field of post-secondary education: non-university and university level higher education, doctoral studies, as well as of complementary education at the corresponding levels.
In August 1996, these two federal bodies were merged into one ministry with combined functions called the Ministry for General and Professional Education of the Russian Federation. This study will refer mainly to this combined Ministry.
The following main functions come under the terms of reference of the federal management and administrative bodies:
the establishment of the procedures for the setting up, reorganization, and dissolution of educational establishments;
the setting up, reorganization, and dissolution of educational establishments under federal subordination;
the elaboration of the procedures for different forms of quality control (licensing, attestation, and state accreditation of educational institutions) and their execution;
the identification of the federal components of the State educational standard;
recognition matters and the nostrification of diplomas obtained abroad;
the elaboration of the attestation (evaluation) procedures for the teaching and administrative staffs of educational institutions and the setting of requirements for their qualifications;
the design of the list of professions and specialities covered by professional education;
the direct funding of educational establishments set up under their authority;
the working out of the state standards and norms for the financing educational institutions and for their material and technical provision as well as for the provision of the teaching-learning process;
control over the execution of legislation in regard to education, over the State educational standard, as well as over budgeting and financing.
In addition to the Ministry for General and Professional Education, other bodies also active are the federal ministerial bodies for the management and administration of education (those set up in federal ministries), the state managerial bodies for education in the constituent parts (republics, territories, regions, etc.) of the Russian Federation (subjects of the Russian Federation), and the local (municipal) administrative bodies. All of these bodies have administrative responsibilities for the educational establishments which they set up.
In the state higher education institutions, routine activities are supervised by Academic Councils that are headed by rectors. The terms of office of an Academic Council is five years. In the non-state educational establishments, supervision is the responsibility of their founders or of a trusteeship council (committee) appointed by the founders.
The direct administration of a higher education institution is the responsibility of the rector. The statute of the institution defines the demarcation between the functions of the Academic Council and of the rector of the institution.
Depending upon the structure of a given institution, Academic Councils may be set up in the faculties. The members are elected from among the academic staff. The terms of reference of Academic Councils are defined in the statutes of the institutions in question. Each faculty is headed by a dean who is elected by the Academic Council of the institution. Faculties are normally composed of chairs that are administered by their heads.
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