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Aspirantura (graduate school, internship, residency etc. ) /
Aspirantura (graduate school, internship, residency etc. )
The academic degree candidate of sciense is the first level officially acknowledging the academic status. The next academic degree level (the highest) is the doctor of science. The degree is awarded in a concrete strictly regulated field of science, for example technical, physico-mathematical, philosophical, pedagogical etc. That is why the holder of the academic degree is officially called not just a candidate of science, but a candidate of technical science, candidate of physico-mathematical science etc.
In order to get academic degree candidate of sciense one should have a higher professional education, pass three exams, defend a dissertation, pass the defense results control in the Higher Attestation Comission of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (called VAK, short for Vysshaya Attestatsionnaya Komissiya).
Candidate examinations are passed in history and philosophy of science, a foreign language and a discipline reflecting a scientific field of study of the dissertation.
As a candidate language test, a post-graduate (candidate), independently of his citizenship, passes the examination in a foreign language determined by the institute of higher education or a scientific institution to be necessary for the candidate to accomplish his (her) dissertation research.
A dissertation for the academic degree candidate of sciense should be a scientific qualification work, including a solution of the problem that has an essential significance for the corresponding field of study, or else states the scientifically substantiated technical, economical or technological elaboration of essential significance for economy.
A dissertation is defended in a speciality according to accepted in Russia nomenclature of scientist specialities. A competitor for the academic degree candidate of sceince presents a dissertation as a specially prepared manuscript or a published monograph. A dissertation should be written independently, contain an aggregate of new scientific results and theses, which are submitted by the author for a public defense, have an internal unity and acknowledge author's personal contribution to science. New solutions advanced by the author should be strictly argued and critically estimated in comparison with other known solutions. A dissertation with applied significance should contain data of practical use of scientific results received by the author, and a dissertation with theoretical value should contain the recommendation for use of scientific deduction.
As a rule one should write a dissertation in the Russian language. In order to decide whether a dissertation may be written and presented not in Russian, a dissertation counsil directs a motivated application to the Higher Attestation Commission or VAK.
The main dissertation results should be published. VAK determines and periodically corrects the List of Russian reviewed and foreigh journals and editions, where the main scientific results of dissertations should be published.
To defend a dissertation a citizen of a CIS country, who received a higher education after dissolution of the USSR not in Russia, should present a certificate of equivalence of higher professional education, issued by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation or by the Federal Service of Supervision in Education and Science Sphere. As for the rest the order of presentation a thesis for defence for citizens of CIS countries is the same as for the citizenry of the Russian Federation.
A defence of a dissertation is normaly hold in dissertation counsils in Russian. But a defense in a foreign language is possible, too. The terms and order of such a defense are stated by the Statute of Academic Degrees Awarding.
The work on a candidate dissertation is carried out through aspirantura or in universities and scientific research institutions of the Russian Federation. You can find more detailed information in websites of this institutions and at the VAK website.
Source by Doctor of technical Science Prof. Domrachev V.G.,
Doctor of technical Science Prof. Retinskaya I.V.
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