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Home / How to apply / Lists of Specializations_2012 /

The list of medical contradictions to study in Russia



I. Inner diseases

  1. Acute illness up to full recovery
  2. Active pulmonary tuberculosis and its extrapulmonary forms
  3. Malignant neoplasm
  4. All the tropical diseases
  5. Diseases of cardiovascular system:
    • - Exertional and rest angina (pectoris)
      - old myocardial infarction regardless of period of limitation, followed by stenocardia; circulatory inefficiency of any degree; paroxysmal types of rhythm disturbance; A-V block, cardiac aneurysm, constant type of cardiac fibrillation (tachy- and bradyarrhythmia), polytopic and frequent ventricular premature beats;
      - Recurrent myocardial infarction;
      - Aneurysm and other lesions of the aorta and its branches;
      - Atherosclerotic or myocarditis cardiosclerosis complicated with circulatory inefficiency of II or III degree, paroxysmal types of cardiac fibrillation (tachy- and bradyarrhythmia, polytopic and frequent ventricular premature beats);
      - Essential hypertension (stages I - II A, if with crises, or IIB - III)
      - Frequent paroxysms of rhythm disturbance of any etiology (more often than once in two month);
      - rheumatic heart disease: bivalve valve insufficiency, bivalve valve insufficiency with mitral stenosis; combined mitral-aortic heart defect together with cardiac fibrillation; inadequate compensation of cardiac activity; apparent megalocardia and if rheumatic process activation has been indicated within the previous 4 years.
  1. Diffusive diseases of connective tissue (rheumatoid joint inflammation, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, periarteritis nodosa, acute disseminated myositis etc.).
  2. Diseases of the respiratory apparatus
    • - Bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis;
      - Combination of chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, pneumosclerosis and multiple bronchiectasis;
      - Lung abscess;
      - Chronic pneumonia.
  1. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract:
    • - Esophageal peptic ulcer in acute condition or remission;
      - Erosive, ulcerative, erosive and ulcerative esophagitis in acute condition or remission;
      - Large diverticulum of the esophagus;
      - Esophageal achalasia;
      - Gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer in acute condition or remission;
      -  Large diverticulum of the stomach;
      - Erosive gastritis and duodenitis;
      - Polyp of the stomach and duodenum;
      - Large diverticulum of the duodenum;
      - Hepatocirrhosis (all types and stages);
      - Chronic active hepatitis;
      - Chronic granulomatous hepatitis;
      - Cholelithiasis, calculous cholecystitis;
      - Hepatolenticular degeneration;
      - HBsAg carrier state;
      - Hemochromatosis;
      - Anhepatic types of portal hypertension;
      - Primary and secondary (metastatic) liver cancer;
      - Benign liver tumors;
      - Echinococcosis, opisthorchiasis and other helminthic invasions of the liver;
      - Hepatic abscess;
      - Acute and chronic cholangitis;
      - Alcohol-induced liver injuries of any type and stage;
      - Obstructive jaundice;
      - Chronic pancreatitis with exocrinous and endocrine dysfunction;
      - Chronic enteritis;
      - Chronic colitis;
      - Nonspecific ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease;
      - Neoplasm (polyps, villous tumors and cancer);
      - Chronic anal fissures with pain syndrome;
      - States after ablative surgery of rectal or colon cancers.
  1. Urolithiasis with renal and ureteral calculus of any location (if calculus is in a calyx, the decision is made after personal urological examination)
  2. Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis
  3. Pyelonephritis with alteration in the urine analysis
  4. Diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary system: (conditions after radiation therapy of Itsenko-Cushing disease; conditions after adrenalectomy for Itsenko-Cushing disease; Itsenko-Cushing disease; Nelson's syndrome)
  5. Panhypopituitarism - Simmonds' disease, Sheehan syndrome
  6. Pituitary tumor accompanied by:
    • - Acromegalia;
      - long-lasting lactorrhea - amenorrhea;
      - Hypophyseal nanism;
      - Diabetes insipidus during decompensation.
  1. iabetes insipidus of nonneoplastic genesis during decompensation
  2. Adrenal diseases:
    1. Tumors of adrenal cortex:
      • - Corticosteroma;
        - Androsteroma;
        - Cortico-androsteroma
        - Corticoesteroma;
        - Aldosteroma;
    2. Tumors of the adrenal medulla and chromaffin tissue:
      • - Pheochromocytoma (blasotma)
    3. Congenital adrenal cortex dysfunction:
      • - Salt-loosing form;
        - Hypertensive form;
        - Newly detected noncompensated states;
        - Chronic adrenal insufficiency.
  1. Diseases of thyroid gland:
    • - Basedow's goiter;
      - Nodular goiter, adenoma of thyroid gland;
      - Diffuse-nodular goiter;
      - Chronic thyroiditis;
      - Hypothyroidism.
  1. Diseases of parathyroid glands:
    1. Tumors and hyperplasia of parathyroid glands accompanied by:
      • - Hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy;
        - Nephrocalculosis;
        - Gastric and intestinal ulcer;
    2. Chronic insufficiency of parathyroid glands (tetany):
      • - Postsurgical;
        - Idiopathic.
  1. Diabetes mellitus:
    1. Insulin-dependent diabetes (type I):
      • - Labile diabetes;
        - Frequent decompensations (ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia);
        - Severe associated illnesses (coronary heart disease <CHD>, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic hepatitis etc.);
    2. insulin-resistant diabetes (type II) accompanied by severe associated illnesses (CHD, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic hepatitis etc.);
    3. Diabetes mellitus types I and II, complications:
      • - Degree III and IV of diabetic retinitis;
        - Neuropathy;
        - Nephropathy.
  1. Insulinomas and functional hyperinsulinism.
  2. Hemoblastosis:
    • - Acute and chronic leukemia;
      - Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas;
      - Erythremia;
      - Idiopathic myelofibrosis;
      - Multiple myeloma;
      - Waldenstrom macroglobulenimia;
  1. Anemia (congenital and acquired):
    • - Hypo- and aplastic anemia;
      - Hemolytic anemia;
      - Megaloblastic anemia;
      - Sideroblastic anemia;
      - Iron-deficiency anemia.
  1. Hemorrhagic diathesis:
    • - Hemophilia;
      - Angiohemophilia (von Willebrand's disease);
      - Idiopathic purpura (Werlhof's disease);
      - Thrombastenia (Glanzmann's disease);
      - Osler's disease;
      - Vascular purpura.
  1. Recurrent agranulocytosis.
  2. Storage diseases
  3. AIDS

II. Surgical pathology

  1. Hernia: epigastric hernia, umbilical hernia, inguinal hernia, femoral hernia, postoperative hernia of any localization; all diaphragm hernia, except hiatal hernia of I or II degree.
  2. Congenital megacolon (Hirschsprung's disease)
  3. Epithelial paths and cysts of coccyx regardless of fistulas presence
  4. Recurrent appendicitis with exacerbations
  5. Trombophlebitis at acute and subacute stages or with frequent exacerbations in past history; all stages of obliterating endarteritis.
  6. Rectal prolapse, especially for persons of physical labor.
  7. Trophic ulcers of any localization.
  8. Hemorrhoids with frequent bleedings, rectal fistulas.
  9. Fistulas of abdominal cavity
  10. Recurrent anal fissures with pain syndrome.
  11. Acute and recurrent anal abscess.
  12. Dermoid cysts in pararectal and retrorectal space.
  13. Anchylosis of two or more large joints, including anchylosis of hip joint after osseous tuberculosis with significant shortening of limb.
  14. Ablation of extremities disregard of its level.
  15. Congenital malformation of the musculoskeletal system preventing from independent locomotion.
  16. Osteomyelitis at any stage
  17. Prostatic hypertrophy

III. Neuropsychic diseases

  1. Transient stroke (of cerebral circulation) of any etiology without local neurologic symptomatology.
  2. Consequences of cerebral stroke with impaired function
  3. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy (chronic insufficiency of cerebral blood circulation) with intellectual and amnesic or movement disorder.
  4. Frequently exacerbated chronic lumbosacral radiculitis.
  5. Chronic peripheral nerve diseases, causing motor disturbance, cacesthesia and trophic disorder; residual effects after paresis of some nerves.
  6. Hereditary progressive neuropathy
  7. Parkinsonism
  8. Disseminated sclerosis
  9. Infection of nerve system with symptomatic dysfunction
  10. Symptomatic vegetative vascular instability
  11. Symptomatic asthenoneurotic state
  12. Persistent and spasmodic disorders (chronic chorea, myoclonia etc.)
  13. Cruveilhier's disease
  14. Consequences of cranial traumas accompanied by residual effects and skull defects
  15. Neurasthenia with symptomatic asthenoneurotic reactions, declaring themselves by irritability, emotional lability, performance decrement and somnipathy
  16. All mental diseases (even in remission period)
  17. All sorts of drug addiction, including chronic alcoholism
  18. Tumor of the central nervous system
  19. Epilepsy
  20. Flaccid and spastic paralyses, hampering movement

IV. Ear, nose and throat diseases (otolaryngology)

  1. Abrupt hearing loss in both ears, preventing normal communication
  2. Respiratory scleroma
  3. Chronic tonsillitis with frequent exacerbations
  4. Chronic purulent otitis media in exacerbation period
  5. Chronic otitis media at the stage of remission (dry perforation)
  6. Diseases of vestibular apparatus with balance disorders or frequent attacks of Meniere's syndrome
  7. Strong stuttering
  8. Clinically apparent ozena
  9. Polyps of paranasal sinuses
  10. Purulent sinusitis
  11. Aphonia
  12. Malignant and benignant neoplasms of ear, nose and throat

V. Eye diseases

  1. Visual acuity of each eye less than 0.3 with correction not higher than 6.0 D (subject to specialty requirements)
  2. Strong myopia (12-15 D) with normal eye grounds
  3. Acute and subacute diseases of conjunctiva and cornea. Various clinical outcome resulting in visual acuity less than 0.3 with correction
  4. Trachoma and virus conjunctivitis
  5. Chronic diseases and optic atrophy
  6. Glaucoma: noncompensated and subcompensated
  7. Pigmentary retinopathy
  8. Tumors of eye socket, intraocular tumors and other malignant or suspicious to malignancy neoplasms
  9. Chromatic sensitivity or binocular vision disorder

VI. Skin and venereal diseases

  1. Syphilis at any stage, chronic and acute gonorrhea
  2. Fungus diseases of scalp (microsporia, favus, thrichophytosis) and skin
  3. Ringworm (rubromycosis), athlete's foot with active manifestation of these diseases on the skin and nail plate lesions
  4. Deep mycosis
  5. Contagious diseases of skin (pyoderma, scabies)
  6. Haemodermia
  7. Kaposi's sarcoma
  8. Pemphigus
  9. Pemphigoid
  10. Duhring's dermatitis
  11. Extensive forms of psoriasis, erythroderma psoriaticum, psoriatic arthritis
  12. Extensive forms of ichthyosis
  13. Devergies' disease (pityriasis rubra pilaris)
  14. Extensive, frequently recurrent forms of eczema, neurodermatitis, Hebra's pruriga
  15. Extensive allergic dermatitis
  16. Dermatomyositis, extensive diffuse scleroderma, lupus erythematosus, systemic forms of these diseases
  17. Chronic allergic angiitis (ulcerous and necrotizing vasculitis, visceral angiitis)
  18. Pointed condyloma
  19. Leprosy at any stage
  20. All skin and venereal tropical diseases

VII. Dental diseases

  1. Chronic ulcerative stomatitis
  2. Chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis
  3. Leukoplakia of the mucous tunic of the oral cavity
  4. Osteomyelitis of the jaws
  5. Parodontosis with abscess formation
  6. Chelitis, glossitis, glossalgia and paresthesia of other sites of the oral cavity in their acute phase

VIII. Female disorders

  1. Acute and chronic, frequently recurrent inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs
  2. Ovarian dysfunction and functional metrorrhagia
  3. Pregnancy (any stage)
  4. Pre-cancerous conditions of the genital organs
  5. Hysteromyoma
  6. Tumors of the ovary
  7. Diseases of the neck of uterus (cervical erosion, polyps, cervical leukoplakia).
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