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Home / Library / Analytics / Educational systems in other countries /

Italy



Italy

Structure of Educational System
Pre-higher Education System
Higher Education System
Administrative structure of higher education
Admissions to Higher Education and Recognition

INSTITUTION TYPES & CREDENTIALS
Types of higher education institutions:
Universita (University)
Politecnico (Technical Universiy)
Istituto Universitario (University Institute)
Accademia (Academy)
Istituto Superiore (Higher Institute)
Scuola Superiore (Higher School)
Conservatorio di Musica (Music Conservatory)
Istituto Musicale Pareggiato (Legally recognized Musical Institute)

School leaving and higher education credentials:
Diploma di Esame di Stato conclusivo dei Corsi di Istruzione Secondaria Superiore
Maturita
Certificate
Diploma Universitario
Laurea
Attestato di Corso di Perfezionamento
Diploma di Specialista di 1 Livello
Master di 1 Livello
Laurea Specialistica
Diploma di Specialista di 2 Livello
Master di 2 Livello
Dottorato di Ricerca

STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM
Pre-higher education:
Duration of compulsory education:
Age of entry: 6
Age of exit: 15
Structure of school system:
Primary
Type of school providing this education: Scuola Elementare
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 6 to: 11
Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma di Licenza della Scuola Elementare
Lower Secondary
Type of school providing this education: Scuola Media Inferiore
Length of program in years: 3
Age level from: 11 to: 14
Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma di Licenza della Scuola Media
Technical Secondary
Type of school providing this education: Istituto Tecnico
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 14 to: 19
Certificate/diploma awarded: Maturita Tecnica/Diploma di Esame di Stato conclusivo del Corso di/per (name of technical option in the Istituto Tecnico concerned (since 1999)
Upper Secondary
Type of school providing this education: Liceo Classico, Liceo Scientifico, Liceo Linguistico
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 14 to: 19
Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma di Maturita Diploma di Esame di Stato conclusivo del Corso di Liceo Classico/Liceo Scientifico (since 1999)
Specialized Secondary
Type of school providing this education: Liceo Artistico, Istituto Magistrale
Length of program in years: 4
Age level from: 14 to: 18
Certificate/diploma awarded: Maturita Artistica, Maturita Magistrale Diploma di Esame di Stato conclusivo del Corso di/per...(name of the option within the Istituto Secondario concerned)(since 1999)
Vocational
Type of school providing this education: Istituto Professionale
Length of program in years: 3
Age level from: 14 to: 17
Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma di Qualifica
Professional
Type of school providing this education: Istituto Professionale
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 14 to: 19
Certificate/diploma awarded: Diploma di Maturita Professionale di/per.../Diploma di Esame di Stato conclusivo dei Corsi di Istruzione Professionale di/per...(name of the option within the Istituto Professionale concerned)
School education:
Elementary educa lasts for five years leading to the Diploma di Licenza della Scuola Elementare. Secondary education covers eight years, divided into three years' lower secondary, followed by five years' upper secondary education. The upper secondary courses consist of classical, scientific, artistic, technical, vocational and teacher training options. Classical secondary school/Liceo Classico is a five-year course, with emphasis on the Humanities, but with scientific subjects in the second cycle. Scientific secondary school/Liceo Scientifico, also a five-year course, provides more specialized preparation in scientific subjects. The Liceo Linguistico focuses on the study of foreign languages together with the corresponding literature and civilization. The technical upper secondary programmes are offered by the Istituti Tecnici and last for five years. Vocational secondary education is provided by the Istituto Professionale, Liceo Artistico, and Istituto di Arte. All these programmes used to lead to different types of Diploma di Maturita (Maturita Classica, Scientifica, Linguistica, Artistica, Magistrale, Tecnica, etc). A Maturita was the minimum admission requirement to university studies, as well as to most programmes at non-university institutions of higher education. Since 1998-1999 the school leaving qualification has been called Diploma di Esame di Stato conclusivo del corso di (see examples above). The options are the same as those listed for the Maturita.
Higher education:
Higher education is provided by universities, technical universities, university institutes, as well as by a wide range of academies, higher institutes/schools, especially, but not exclusively, in the artistic sector, and by a number of professional training institutions in a variety of fields related to commerce, e-technologies, fashion, industry, etc.. The majority of the existing university institutions were established directly by the State, while a limited number, originally set up by private entities, were later recognised by the relevant Ministry. At present (2001-2002) the university system includes 776 university institutions (52 state universities, 3 technical universities, 13 non-state legally-recognized universities, 3 state university institutes, 14 non-state legally-recognized university institutes, 2 universities for foreigners, 3 higher schools regulated by special legislation). From 1989 to 1999 MURST was responsible for university education, some sectors of non-university education (interpretation and translation, psychotherapy), as well as for the allocation of funds to the state universities and the private universities that had conformed with the structure of the public sector (i.e. legally-recognized university institutions). The main advisory body for university education are the National University Council (CUN), the University Student National Council (CNSU) in which the representatives of the various categories of university staff and students participate, and the Conference of Italian University Rectors (CRUI). In the same decade (1989-99), the supervision and development of primary and secondary education was entrusted to the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione (MPI) (Ministry of Education), whereas responsibility for the non-university sector of higher education was shared between the Ministry for the National Cultural Heritage (institutions and programmes in conservation and restoration) and MPI (institutions for fine and applied arts, dance, drama, and music, as well as since 1998-99 all FIS programmes (higher integrated technical education). In 1999, the reform of the artistic sector (drama, dance and music) was entrusted to MURST (Law 508/99). More recently, the new Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) was established to which all financial resources, staff and functions of the former MPI and MURST were transferred. The merging of the two ministries took place in 2001.Degree programmes are structured in credits (crediti formativi universitari-CFU). A university credit corresponds to 25 hours of work per students, time for personal study included. The average annual workload of a full-time student is conventionally fixed at 60 credits.
Main laws/decrees governing higher education:
Decree: DM 509 Year: 1999
Concerns: Universities
Decree: Law 168 Year: 1989
Concerns: Ministry of the University and Scientific and Technological Research (MURST)
Decree: Law no 127 Year: 1997
Concerns: university
Decree: Law no 59 Year: 1997
Concerns: universities
Decree: Law no. 210 Year: 1998
Concerns: Universities
Decree: Law no. 224 Year: 1999
Concerns: Universities
Decree: Law no. 370 Year: 1999
Concerns: University evaluation
Academic year:
Classes from: Nov to: Oct
Languages of instruction: Italian
Stages of studies:
Non-university level post-secondary studies (technical/vocational type):
Non-university level:
Non-university higher education institutions include the Academies of Fine Arts, the Higher Institutes for Applied Arts, Music Conservatories and other similar institutes, various National Academies/Schools (for Cinema, Dance, Drama, and advanced musical studies), Higher Institutes/Schools for Conservation and Restoration, Higher Schools for Interpreters and Translators, Higher Institutes/Schools of Psychotherapy, Military Academies, institutions participating in the FIS project, regional institutions of post-secondary professional education, etc...1) STATE ARTISTIC EDUCATION: The Academies of Fine Arts (ABA) have traditionally offered four-year courses in Painting, Sculpture, Decoration and Scenography leading to a Diploma di Licenza in At the end of each academic year students sit for an examination in each of the subjects they have studied. At the end of the course, each student must defend a written thesis on an art history topic. It is part of the final Diploma examination.The Higher Institutes for Applied Arts (ISIAs) have also offered four-year Diploma courses. They include Graphic Design, Industrial Design, Design and Technology of Pottery. Programmes always included theoretical disciplines, the elaboration of projects and participation in workshop activities. Examinations were held annually in each discipline. Before sitting for the final Diploma examination, students had to have passed all the subject examinations of their curriculum. Additionally, they had to submit a thesis consisting of a practical project. The Diploma examination involved the presentation of the thesis. The final qualification was called Diploma di..., followed by the specialized field.The National Dance Academy (AND) offers programmes for the basic training and further specialization of dancers, choreographers and dance teachers. Admission requirements -including age limit and previous qualifications - vary according to course typology and level: in some cases an entrance test must be passed. Course length may differ considerably according to the course typology and level (e.g. 8-year basic programme for beginners, one-year programmes for students' upgrading or for professionals). Final qualifications are called Diploma di (e.g. solo dancers, choreographers, teachers of classical or modern dance).Programmes for the training of stage actors and directors are offered by the National Academy of Drama. Admission is based on the Italian school leaving diploma (Maturita/Diploma di Esame di Stato) or an equivalent foreign qualification and on a national competition open to both Italians and foreigners aged between 18 and 23 (actors) or 25 (directors). The course lasts for 3 years. The Academy confers two main qualifications: the diploma in stage acting (Diploma di Recitazione) and the diploma in stage direction (Diploma di Regia) which have legal validity for professional ends throughout Italy.Musical Education is offered in music conservatories (CM); recognized music institutes (IMP) and the national music academy (ANM). Since the minimum requirement for admission to CMs and IMPs is the completion of 8 to 9 years of compulsory education, the first 4-year stage of the various programmes, usually corresponding to basic course (corso inferiore), ranks at upper secondary level, whilst the second (if any) and third stage (corso medio and corso superiore) belong to higher education. Global study length may vary, depending on the different specializations, from a minimum of 5 years (singers/cantors) to a maximum of 10 years (composition/orchestra direction/musical instruments). The final qualification awarded by CMs is the Diploma (di Conservatorio) di(name of specialization). The National Music Academy offers post-graduate advanced courses in musical studies which are open to both Italians and foreigners. It also promotes state competitions at national and international level. The National Music Academy (ANM di Santa Cecilia) offers postgraduate programmes at advanced level for qualified musicians. Admission is by Diploma di Conservatorio (or an equivalent foreign qualification) and is subject to very selective competition. Course length varies up to a maximum of 3 years. The final qualification is called Diploma di Perfezionamento in. It is an advanced qualification which is comparable in level to a postgraduate university degree. The latest reform of state education in Fine Arts, Applied Arts, Drama, Dance and Music, the Legge 508/1999, provides for the setting up of a new system of advanced education and specialization in the Arts and Music (the AFAM system). According to this law, music and dance education is provided by ISSMCs (higher institutes for music and dance studies), including all MCs, IMPs and AND. The AFAM system is therefore made up of ISSMCs together with all art Institutions such as ABAs, ISIAs and the National Academy of Drama. The AFAM institutions are endowed with full autonomy (statutory, scientific, teaching, managerial, financial). They have to refer to MURST (Ministry for Universities and Research) and the national reference authority for all matters related to planning, orientation and coordination (Art. 2 paragraph 3 of Law 508/99). The AFAM institutions may establish programmes at different levels from the basic to the advanced and specialized level and promote research in the Arts and Music. The minimum access requirement to their basic programmes is the Diploma di Esame di Stato conclusivo dei Corsi di Istruzione Secondaria Superiore. Admission is normally subject to an entrance examination. Final qualifications may be defined by law as equivalent to university degrees for participation in public competitions. The full implementation of the reform will take some years, since both the articulation of studies in levels, the reorganization of curricula and the definition of the new qualifications with their denominations are still being debated.Cinema studies are offered by the Scuola Nazionale di Cinema. Admission is by a highly selective national competition which is also open to foreign candidates. It is open to candidates aged 19-26 (maximum age for actors is 24). They must hold the Italian school leaving diploma or an equivalent foreign qualification, documentary evidence of previous education and training in the chosen specialization and adequate knowledge of the Italian language. The School offers 2-3-year programmes in Acting, Direction, Production, Management, Screening, etc. All programmes apply to both cinema and television.Conservation and Restoration of the Cultural Heritage is taught at the central institutes/schools for the cultural heritage which are under the responsibility of the Ministero dei Beni Culturali. Admission is normally open to applicants who have previous knowledge and experience in the chosen field. Courses usually last between 3 and 4 years. Short programmes are also available. They consist in further specialization for professionals who are already experienced in a given field. 2) REGIONAL ARTISTIC EDUCATION STUDIES: In addition to the state or state-recognized institutions and programmes mentioned above, several non-state institutions offer post-secondary programmes in Applied Arts (Design, Graphics), Cinema, Dance, Fashion, Media and Communication, Landscape Architecture, Music, Theatre, etc. Some are recognized by the relevant Italian regions or by local authorities. 3) STUDIES IN INTERPRETATION AND TRANSLATION: The Higher Schools for Interpreters and Translators (SSIT) offer many different programmes. In conformity with Law 697/86, their 3-year course leading to the Diploma di Traduttore e Interprete was restructured according to the pattern of similar university qualifications. In 1993 it was remodelled according to the national typology of the first level university degree in the same fields, I.e. the DU for Interpreters and Translators. The SSIT Diploma is recognized by the State as having legal validity for professional ends. The competence for the supervision of the SSIT programmes used to be attributed to MPI. In 1989 it was transferred to MURST.4) STUDIES IN PSYCHOTHERAPY: Iin addition to the university specialization schools that offer advanced (3rd level) programmes in Psychology (clinical/health), there are many Higher Institutes/Schools whose 4-year postgraduate programmes in Psychotherapy devised for professional psychologists have been recognized by the Ministry for University and Research (MURST).5) ARCHIVAL STUDIES, PALAEOGRAPHY, DIPLOMACY: Schools for archivists and experts in Palaeography and Diplomacy are state institutions of university rank that fall under the supervision of the Ministry for the National Cultural Heritage. They are established at the State archives in several cities. The main purpose of these schools is to provide theoretical notions and practical experience required to record and rearrange documents, etc. or to carry out research in related fields. Admission requirements include knowledge of Latin and the passing of a selective competition. Programmes last for two years and lead to the award of a Diploma in Archival Studies, Palaeography and Diplomacy (Diploma di archivistica, paleografia e diplomatica) which is equivalent to the diploma conferred by the Special School for Archivists and Librarians of the University La Sapienza in Rome.6) HIGHER INTEGRATED EDUCATION: In 1998, an innovative initiative was promoted by MPI known as FIS (Formazione Integrata Superiore). FIS aims at a more effective coordination of all professionally-orientated education in Italy at higher education level from the 3-year DU and other more advanced university programmes such as the Corsi di Perfezionamento or professional Master's to post-secondary regional courses and to the IFTS ones described below. FIS's objective is to re-qualify the entire system of professional education by better exploiting existing resources and facilities and make it easier for students to pass from one educational route to another. A pilot project within FIS was launched in 1998 by setting up some 150 experimental programmes of advanced technical education and training, the courses for Istruzione e Formazione Tecnica Superiore (IFTS). The IFTS pilot project was transformed into an official educational offer by Art. 69 of Law 144/1999. Courses last for a maximum of four semesters (2 years). Contents must include basic technical and scientific subjects, practical applications, training periods in private concerns or public bodies, other professionally-orientated activities "in the field" and, at intervals, occupational experiences. Practical training periods must cover no less than 30-40% of the global length of each programme and may take place both in Italy and abroad, in EU or non-EU countries. The final qualification of each IFTS course is generally called "Attesto/Certificato di Competenza", the corresponding workload is expressed in credits so as to make the qualification valid for further studies both in Italy - either in the university system or in the 2nd or 3rd level of regional professional education - and abroad, in particular in the European Union.

University level studies:
University level first stage: First Cycle:
TRADITIONAL UNIVERSITY SYSTEM: First level studies include Corsi di Diploma Universitario (DU), courses run by the Scuole Dirette a Fini Speciali (SDFAFS) (schools for special purposes),Corsi di Diploma Universitario (DU), both leading to the award of a Diploma Universitario and Scuole di Ostretricia (schools for midewives' training).The main purpose of SDAFS courses is to prepare students for specific professions. Most courses are in Health, Agriculture, Technology and Economics. They last between two and three years. A period of practical training is compulsory. University Faculties of Medicine and Surgery provide courses that train midwives in their teaching hospitals. Since 1992, most SDAFS courses have been transformed into DU courses. DU courses cover almost all the basic disciplines and last for three years. Each DU course comprises compulsory disciplines and a number of optional ones. A period of practical training (tirocinio) is often included in the curriculum studorium. NEW UNIVERSITY SYSTEM: In 2001-2002, the new teaching regulations as provided for in DM 509/99 have been implemented with reference to the first cycle of university education. For some years, two main different types of programmes and degrees will co-exist in Italian universities, the traditional one based on the former regulations which is gradually disappearing and the new ones based on the above mentioned regulations and the subsequent ministerial decrees. Independently of the latest reform, the Italian university tuition fees and additional contributions to be paid by students are calculated on the basis of individual students' income and may vary from one degree programme to the other according to course level, typology and subject area. The same regulations are applied to both Italian and foreign students. In the new system, undergraduate studies consist in Corsi di Laurea (CL) (first degree courses) aimed at guaranteeing students an adequate command of general scientific methods and contents as well as specific professional skills. The general access requirement is the Italian school leaving qualification, the Diploma di Superamento dell'Esame di Stato conclusivo dei Corsi di Istruzione Secondaria Superiore. Equivalent foreign qualifications may also be accepted. Admission to individual degree courses may be subject to specific requirements. First degree courses last for three years. The Laurea-L (first degree) is awarded to undergraduates who have obtained 180 credits.

University level second stage: Second Cycle:
TRADITIONAL UNIVERSITY SYSTEM: Second level studies consist exclusively in Laurea Degree courses (Curso di Laurea, CL) which last from four to five years, depending on the faculty and the course. Only the Laurea degree course In Medicine and Surgery lasts for six years. The curricula of certain CLs are divided into two phases: a first two-year period which is considered as a preliminary stage with basic theoretical disciplines and a second three-year stage consisting in specialized application and generally articulated in groups of more specific disciplines selected for specialization.NEW UNIVERSITY SYSTEM: In the new system, graduate studies include Corsi di Laurea Specialistica (CLS), Corsi di Specializziazione di 1 livello (CS1) and Corsi di Master Universitario di 1 livello (CMU1). 1) CLS provide graduates with an advanced level of education to exercise highly qualified activities in specific areas. Access to CLS is through the Italian first degree (L) or an equivalent foreign degree and the course lasts for two years. The final degree, the Laurea Specialistica- LS (second degree) is awarded to graduates who have obtained a total of 300 credits, including those of the first degree that have been recognized for access to the CLS (maximum 180). The writing of an original dissertation is also compulsory. A limited number of CLS regulated by specific EU directives (in Dentistry, Human Medicine, Veterinary Medicine) share the following features: access is through the Italian school leaving certificate or an equivalent foreign qualification, admission is always subject to an entrance examination; the course lasts for 5 years ( 6 in Human Medicine). 2) CS1 provide the knowledge and abilities needed for the practice of highly qualified professions. They may be established exclusively in application of specific Italian laws or EU directives. Access is based on the Laurea (first degree) or an equivalent foreign qualification and is subject to the passing of a competitive examination. The length of the courses varies between two and three years. The final degree, the Diploma di Specializzazione di 1livello (DS1) (first level specialization degree) is conferred to graduates who have obtained 300-360 credits, including those of the first degree that have been recognized for access to the CS1. 3) CMU1 consist in advanced scientific courses or higher continuing education studies that are open to holders of a Laurea-L or an equivalent foreign degree. Admission may be subject to additional conditions. The length of the course is a minimum of one year. The degree of Master Universitario di 1 livello -MU1 (first level university Master's) is awarded to graduates who have obtained at least 60 credits.

University level third stage: Third Cycle:
TRADITIONAL UNIVERSITY SYSTEM: Third level studies (Post-Lauream) consist in courses offered by Scuole di Specializzazione (specialization schools), Corsi di Dottorato di Ricerca (DR) (research doctorate programmes) and Corsi di Perfezionamento. The former aim at professional training and academic education in specialized disciplines and the latter at advanced training in research. The duration of studies at specialized schools is two to five years, depending on the field of specialization. A period of practical training is usually included, as well as some research activities. These courses are subject to a numerus clausus. They lead to the award of the Diploma di Specializzazione, that gives the right to the title of Specialista in the field concerned. Entrance to DR programmes is based on very competitive examinations. The length of studies varies between three and four years as minimum law requirement. Since the latest DR reform (Art. 4 of Law 210/1998), the evaluation of candidates' performance, once carried out by national examination boards, while the final titles were attributed by MURST, has become the responsibility of locally-appointed boards at individual university institutions; the DR title is now conferred by the Rector. Disciplinary areas include Agriculture, Architecture, Economics, Pharmacy, Law, Engineering, Humanities, Modern Languages and Education, Biomedicine, Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Natural Sciences, Physics and Mathematics and Political Science. Corsi di Perfezionamento (CP) form a special branch of university studies. They should be classified as Post-Lauream (postgraduate) courses but sometimes their admission requirements may be an academic qualification below a Laurea degree. They also offer opportunities for professional retraining and for continuing education. The maximum duration of studies should not exceed one year. Attendance in Corsi di Perfezionamento leads to an Attestato di Corso di Perfezionamento. This category used to include a considerable number of Master's programmes derived from the UK and US systems. The Italian Master's degrees have been adapted to the Italian system by making them third level university qualifications which, thanks to their problem-orientated approach and professional character, prove complementary to the theoretical contents of the long Laurea programmes.NEW UNIVERSITY SYSTEM: In the new system, postgraduate studies include Corsi di Dottorato di Ricerca-CDR (research doctorate programmes), Corsi di Specializzazione di 2 livello-CS2 (second level specialization courses) and Corsi di Master Universitario di 2 livello-CMU2 (second level university Master's degree courses). 1) CDR train postgraduates for very advanced scientific research or professional appointments at the highest level: they use suitable teaching methodologies such as updated technologies, study periods abroad, internships in specialized research centres. Access is based on an Italian second degree (LS) or an equivalent foreign qualification, admission is subject to the passing of very competitive examinations. The official length of the course is a minimum of three years. Students must write an original dissertation to be awarded the Dottorato du Ricerca-DR. 2) CS2 provide postgraduates with the knowledge and skills required for the practice of highly qualified professions. They may only be established in application of specific Italian laws or EU directives. Access is based on the LS (second degree) or an equivalent foreign qualification and is subject to the passing of a competitive entrance examination. Couses last for one year except CS2 in the health sector which may take up to a maximum of 5 years. 3) CMUs consist in advanced scientific courses or higher continuing education courses which are open to holders of an LS or an equivalent foreign qualification. Admission may be subject to additional conditions. Studies last for a minimum of one year. The Master Universitario di 2 livello-MU2 is awarded to postgraduates who have obtained a minimum of 60 credits.

Teacher education:
Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers
Infant and Elementary school teachers follow a four-year university curriculum (Laurea in Scienze della Formazione Primaria)(LSFP) which was first instituted in 1996 (DPR 471/1996). In LSFP two different programmes prepare the students for teaching in infant school or in elementary school. Students must choose at the end of the second year. The second two- year period for elementary school is centred upon a few disciplines to take into account the structure of elementary school.
Training of secondary school teachers
Prospective secondary teachers, who are educated in four- to five-year Corsi di laurea at almost all university faculties, are entitled to teach either after completion of a two-year "Post-Lauream course" in a specialization school, or after passing the relevant state examination entitling to teach a specific subject (or group of subjects) at a defined level, i.e. lower secondary or upper secondary (after obtaining the traditional "abilitazione all insegnamento").The reorganization of teacher education and training in conformity with the latest university reform is still to be defined in its most relevant steps.

Non-traditional studies:
Distance higher education
The Consorzio Nettuno is a university-business consortium officially providing distance higher education. Made up of a number of universities and public companies, the consortium offers open education programmes mainly leading to the award of DUs.The Consorzio FOR.COM, a non-profit body recognised by MURST (DM 9.10.97) is the result of cooperation between certain Italian and foreign universities. Within its educational offer, it is worth mentioning new 3-year Laurea programmes as well as post-laurem courses (Master's, specialization courses, other advanced programmes). ICON (Italian Culture on the Net) is a consortium made up of 24 Italian universities. The main seat is at the State University of Pisa. Legally established in 1999, ICON aims to promote and disseminate the Italian language, civilization and culture worldwide. At present, it offers a Laurea programme in Italian Language and Culture for Foreigners.
Lifelong higher education
Universities also offer short advanced study courses (falling within the category of corsi di perfezionamento) and post-experience courses in the framework of lifelong education. A degree is not obligatory for admission. An Attendance Certificate is issued at the end of these courses. There are also Universities of the Third Age.
Other forms of non-formal higher education
Alongside the state higher education system, other educational opportunities have been established locally by the Regions which establish and manage vocational programmes in a broad variety of fields and at various levels. They train participants for better occupational opportunities in industry, trade and crafts. With respect to university education, regional post-secondary courses offer an alternative route which is more centred on specific technical notions and skills. They are open to holders of a secondary school leaving qualification (corsi post-diploma) or to Laurea graduates (corsi post-laurea). Their main purpose is to train professionals in such new functions as required by the ever-changing production system and the further specialization of already existing professional profiles. Some post-secondary professional programmes are set up jointly by the Regions and the Ministry of Labour and benefit from financial contributions from the European social fund. For information on regional/provincial professional programmes one must contact the regional office for professional training (Assessorato Regionale alla Formazione Professionale) or information offices run by local bodies (e.g. the Informagiovani).

NATIONAL BODIES
Administration & co-ordination:
Responsible authorities:
Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (Ministerio dell' Istruzione, dell' Universita e della Ricerca)
Head: Letizia Moratti, Minister (Acting)
S.A.U.S. - Uff V, Piazzale Kennedy 20
00144 Roma
Italy
Tel: +39(06) 5991-2819
Fax: +39(06) 5991-2967
WWW: http://www.miur.it

Role of governing body: Governing and taking responsibility for university education.

National University Council (Consiglio Universitario Nazionale (CUN))
Head: Luigi Labruna
Piazzale Kennedy 20
00144 Roma
Italy
Tel: +39(06) 599-12967
Fax: +39(06) 599-12722
WWW: http://www.miur.it/cun/

Role of governing body: Consultative role

Conference of Italian University Rectors (Conferenza dei Rettori delle Universita Italiane (CRUI))
Head: Luciano Modica, President
Administrative officer: Emanuela Stefani, Executive Director
Piazza Rondanini 48
00186 Roma
Italy
Tel: +39(06) 6844-11
Fax: +39(06) 6844-1399
EMail: segretaria@crui.it
WWW: http://www.crui.it

Role of governing body: Consultative role

ADMISSIONS TO HIGHER EDUCATION
Admission to non university higher education studies
Name of secondary school credential required: Maturita
Minimum score/requirement: 36 (before 1999)
Name of secondary school credential required: Diploma di Esame di Stato conclusivo dei Corsi di Istruzione Secondaria Superiore
Minimum score/requirement: 60/100 (since 1998-99)
Alternatives to credentials:
Diploma di Maturita artistica di 1a sezione, Diploma di Maestro d'Arte, Maturita di Arta Applicata for Academies of Fine Arts
Entrance exams required:
For the Academie di Belli Arti, students who hold lower secondary qualifications must sit for an entrance examination. For the ISIAs, applicants must sit for an entrance examination consisting of aptitude tests related to the specialized area chosen.
Numerus clausus/restrictions:
There is a numerus clausus.
Admission to university-level studies
Name of secondary school credential required: Maturita
Minimum score/requirement: 36
For entry to: All universities (before 1998-99)
Name of secondary school credential required: Diploma di Esame di Stato conclusivo dei Corsi di Istruzione Secondaria Superiore
Minimum score/requirement: 60/100
For entry to: All universities (since 1998-99)
Entrance exams required: There are entrance examinations to DU and SDAFS courses. Entrance examinations for admission to numerus clausus CLs consist of written tests followed by an oral interview. They may vary from one institution to another and from one CL to another.
Numerus clausus/restrictions: There is a numerus clausus. The number of available places is determined every year by the Academic Senate of the university on the advice of the faculty council concerned. The numerus clausus applies to the following Laurea courses: Architecture, Dentistry, Medicine and Surgery, Veterinary Medicine at both older and newly-established institutions; all newly-established CLs at all institutions; all CLs at recently established institutions, such as the Universita della Calabria, Tor Vergata (Rome 2), Rome 3, Naples II, Milan 2, etc.
Foreign students admission
Definition of foreign student: A foreign student is a person enrolled at an Italian institution of higher education who is not a permanent resident of Italy.
Admission requirements: Students should hold qualifications that entitle them to enter university degree courses of an academic nature in their country of origin, and that have been conferred on completion of a minimum of 12 years of global schooling. In addition, foreign students are required to pass an examination in the Italian language that is organized every year in early September by individual universities.
Entry regulations: An entry visa, residence permit and financial guarantee are required.
Language requirements: Good knowledge of Italian. Universities organize language courses.
Application procedures:
Apply to individual institution for entry to: Universities
Apply to national body for entry to: All types of universities and programmes.
Apply to:
Italian Embassy/Consulate in the home country.

Application closing dates:
For non-university level (technical/vocational type) studies: Apr
For university level studies: Apr
For advanced/doctoral studies: Apr
Recognition of studies & qualifications:
Studies pursued in home country (System of recognition/accreditation): Contents of individual degree courses are determined autonomously by universities. Individual institutions, however, when establishing a CL or CLS, have to adopt several general requirements fixed at national level in relation to groups (classi) of similar degree programmes. These national requirements may not bind more than 2/3 of each curriculum. Degree programmes which share the same objectives and same fundamental types of teaching/learning activities are organized in groups called classi di appartenenza (classes of degree programmes).
Studies pursued in foreign countries (bodies dealing with recognition of foreign credentials):
ENIC-NARIC, Centro di Informazione sulla Mobilita e le Equivalenze Accademiche (CIMEA), Fondazione RUI
Head: Carlo Finocchietti, Director
Viale Ventuno Aprile 36
00162 Roma
Italy
Tel: +39(06) 863-21281
Fax: +39(06) 863-22845
EMail: cimea@fondazionerui.it
WWW: http://www.fondazionerui.it

Services provided & students dealt with: CIMEA offers information and counselling on academic recognition of diplomas, periods of study and publishes guides and directories on matters related to academic mobility. CIMEA acts on behalf of MIUR.

Ministerio dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR)
SAUS-Uff.X Piazzale Kennedy 20
00144 Rome
Italy
Tel: +39(06) 2080 +39(06) 2061
Fax: +39(06) 5991-2242
WWW: http://www.miur.it

Ministero dell' Istruzione, dell' Universita e della Ricerca
SAUS-Uff. V Piazzale Kennedy 20
00144 Roma
Italy
Tel: +39(06) 5991-1
Fax: +39(06) 5991-2967 (International Relations Office)
WWW: http://www.miur.it

Services provided & students dealt with: CIMEA acts on behalf of the Ministero dell' Istruzione, dell' Universita e della Ricerca

Multilateral agreements concerning recognition of foreign studies
Name of agreement: International Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Certificates, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education in the Arab and European States Bordering on the
Year of signature: 1976
Name of agreement: The Convention (UNESCO, Europe Region) on the recognition of higher education studies and qualifications in the States of the Europe Region (Legge 376/1982)
Year of signature: 1979
Name of agreement: The European Convention (CoE) on the equivalence of diplomas leading to admission to universities (Legge 901/1956)
Year of signature: 1953
Name of agreement: The European Convention (CoE) on the equivalence of university study periods (Legge 258/1993)
Year of signature: 1990
Name of agreement: The European Convention (CoE) on the equivalence of university study periods in foreign languages (Legge 197/1958)
Year of signature: 1956
Name of agreement: The European Convention (CoE) on the recognition of university qualifications (Legge 1940/1962)
Year of signature: 1959
Bilateral agreements concerning recognition of foreign credentials
Name of agreement: DM 11.06.90
Year of signature: 1990
Country/state involved: San Marino
Name of agreement: DPR No. 175
Year of signature: 1994
Country/state involved: Holy See
Name of agreement: Exchange of Letters (16.07.99)
Year of signature: 1999
Country/state involved: San Marino
Name of agreement: Exchange of Notes (14.07.99)
Year of signature: 1999
Country/state involved: Spain
Name of agreement: Law No.
Year of signature: 2000
Country/state involved: Switzerland
Name of agreement: Law No. 103 (Memorandum of Understanding)
Year of signature: 1997
Country/state involved: Slovenia
Name of agreement: Law No. 322
Year of signature: 2000
Country/state involved: Austria
Name of agreement: Law No. 49
Year of signature: 1996
Country/state involved: Germany
Name of agreement: Verbal Proceedings of 24.10.97
Year of signature: 1997
Country/state involved: Australia
References to further information on foreign student admissions and recognition of studies
Title: Guida ai servizi per gli studenti universitari 2000-2001
Author: Ministro dell'Universita e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica
Title: Guida all'Universita 2000-2001
Author: Ministro dell'Universita e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica
Publisher: CIMEA della Fondazione RUI
Title: Higher Education in Italy: a Guide for Foreigners 2000
Author: Ministro dell'Universita e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica
Publisher: CIMEA della Fondazione RUI
Title: La formazione postlaurea nelle universita italiane 1999-2000
Author: Ministro dell'Universita e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica
Publisher: CIMEA della Fondazione RUI

STUDENT LIFE
National student associations and unions
Unione degli Universitari (UDU)
Corso Italia 25
Roma
Italy
Tel: +390(6) 847-6533
Fax: +390(6) 884-5683
WWW: http://www.udu.org

Student expenses and financial aid
Publications on student services and financial aid:
Title: Study Abroad 2000-2001
Publisher: UNESCO/IBE
Year of publication: 1999

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION & EXCHANGES
Principal national bodies responsible for dealing with international cooperation and exchanges in higher education:
Ministero dell' Istruzione, dell' Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR)
Piazzale Kennedy 20
00144 Roma
Italy
Tel: +39(06) 5991-2819
Fax: +39(06) 5991-2967
WWW: http://www.miur.it

Participation of country in multilateral or bilateral higher education programmes
Name of exchange programme: LEONARDO
Name of exchange programme: SOCRATES

GRADING SYSTEM
Usual grading system in secondary school
Full Description: 0-10
Highest on scale: 10
Pass/fail level: 6
Main grading system used by higher education institutions
Full Description: For Laurea: 0-110 + con lode/cum laude. For examinations during the degree: 0-30 with 18 as the pass. For specialist diploma: 0-70, 42 being the qualifying grade.

NOTES ON HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM

Data for academic year: 2001-2002
Source: Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and Italian NARIC-ENIC, CIMEA/Rui Foundation, 2002



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