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Law of the Russian Federation No. 3266-1 of July 10, 1992 /
Law of the Russian Federation No. 3266-1 of July 10, 1992
Education is understood in this Law as a purposeful process of tuition and training in the interests of the person, society and the State, accompanied by certification of the achievement by the citizen (the individual undergoing instruction) of certain education levels (educational qualifications) defined by the State.
The receiving of education by the citizen (the individual undergoing instruction) is understood as the achievement and certification of a certain educational qualification confirmed by an appropriate document.
The right to receive an education is one of the basic and inalienable constitutional rights of citizens of the Russian Federation.
The education in the Russian Federation is carried out in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation and the norms of the international law.
Chapter I. General Provisions
Article 1. The State Policy in the Sphere of Education
1. The Russian Federation proclaims education to be its priority sphere.
2. The organizational basis of the State policy of the Russian Federation in the sphere of education is the Federal purposive programme for the development of education.
3. The Federal Purposive Programme for the Development of Education shall be worked out and endorsed by the Government of the Russian Federation.
4. A report by the Government of the Russian Federation on the fulfilment of the Federal purposive programme for the development of education shall be submitted annually to both chambers of the Federation Council of the Russian Federation and published in an official publication.
5. The creation and functioning of the organizational structures of political parties, and of social and political, and religious movements and organizations (associations) is not permitted in the State and municipal education establishments and in education administration organs.
Article 2. The Principles of the State Policy in the Sphere of Education
The State policy in the sphere of education is based on the following principles:
1) the humanistic nature of education, priority of common human values, and human life and health, and free development of the personality, the cultivation of civic pride, diligence, respect for human rights, love for the environment, the Motherland, the family;
2) the unity of the Federal cultural and educational domain, protection and development of national cultures, regional cultural traditions and characteristics by the educational system under the conditions of multinational state;
3) the public character of education, the adaptability of educational system to the levels, and developmental characteristics and acquired knowledge of the students, pupils;
4) the secular character of education in the State and municipal educational establishments;
5) freedom of pluralism in education;
6) the democratic, State and public nature of education administration. The autonomy of educational establishments.
Article 3. The Legislation of the Russian Federation in the Sphere of Education
1. The legislation of the Russian Federation in the sphere of education consists of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, this Federal law, other laws being adopted in conformity with the latter, and other normative legal acts of the Russian Federation, as well as laws and other normative legal acts in the sphere of education of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
2. The Federal laws in the sphere of education including this Law:
define the limits of the competence and responsibility of the Federal bodies of the State power, bodies of the State power of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local self-government bodies in the sphere of education;
within the limits of the established Federal competence, control relations in the sphere of education, which are to be uniform for all subjects of the Russian Federation. In this part the Federal laws in the sphere of education are the laws of direct effect and are applicable throughout the territory of the Russian Federation;
introduce general fundamental norms on matters pertaining to the competence of the subjects of the Russian Federation, according to which the latter shall exercise their own legal regulation in the sphere of education.
3. The subjects of the Russian Federation depending on their status and competence can adopt laws and other normative legal acts, provided that are not at variance with the Federal laws in the sphere of education.
Laws and other normative legal acts of subjects of the Russian Federation in the sphere of education may not restrict the rights of natural and legal entities by comparison with the provisions of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the sphere of education.
4. Natural and legal entities violating the legislation of the Russian Federation in the sphere of education shall be liable in the manner laid down by the legislation of the Russian Federation.
Article 4. The Tasks of the Legislation of the Russian Federation in the Sphere of Education
The tasks of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the sphere of education are:
1) to define the competence of federal executive power bodies, executive power bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local self-government bodies in the sphere of education;
2) to ensure and protect the constitutional right of citizens of the Russian Federation to education;
3) to establish legal guarantees for the free functioning and development of the educational system of the Russian Federation;
4) to define rights, obligations, powers, and responsibilities of natural and legal entities in the sphere of education and to exercise legal regulation of their relations in this sphere.
Article 5. The State Guarantees of the Rights of Citizens of the Russian Federation in the Sphere of Education
1. Citizens of the Russian Federation are guaranteed the possibility to receive education irrespective of their sex, race, nationality, language, social origin, place of residence, attitude toward religion, personal convictions, membership in public organizations (associations), age, health status, property status, official status, criminal record.
Limitations on the rights of citizens to vocational training on the grounds of sex, age, health status, criminal record may be established only by law.
2. The State ensures the right of citizens to education by establishing an educational system and the corresponding social and economic conditions for obtaining education.
3. The State guarantees that the citizens shall have access to the public and free pre-school, primary general, basic general, secondary (complete) general education and primary vocational training, and, on a competitive basis, to free secondary vocational, higher vocational and aftergraduate vocational education and training in the State and municipal educational establishments within the State educational standards should the citizen receive education at this level for the first time.
4. Abolished from January 1, 2005.
5. In order to exercise the right to education of citizens in need of social assistance the State shall bear all or part of the cost of their maintenance during period of their education. The categories of citizens who this assistance will be rendered to, the procedure for, and the scope of, rendering it shall be established by federal laws for federal state educational facilities, by laws of the subjects of the Russian Federation for educational facilities within the scope of jurisdiction of the subjects of the Russian Federation and for municipal educational facilities.
6. The State shall create conditions for the education of citizens with developmental abnormalities, correction of developmental abnormalities and social adaptation based on special pedagogical methods.
7. The State provides support to citizens who have exhibited outstanding capabilities for their education including the awarding of special State grants ?such as grants for studies abroad. The criteria and the procedures for the awarding of such grants are laid down by the Government of the Russian Federation.
Article 6. Language (Languages) of Tuition
1. The general aspects of language policy in the educational sphere are governed by the Law of the RSFSR On the Languages of the Peoples of the RSFSR.
2. Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to receive their basic general education in their mother tongue, and also to choose the language of tuition within the range of possibilities afforded by the educational system.
The right of citizens to be taught in their mother tongue is ensured through the creation of the necessary number of appropriate educational establishments, classes, groups and conditions for their functioning.
3. The language (languages) in which teaching and education are effected in an educational establishment shall be defined by the founder (founders) of the educational establishment and (or) by the Charter of the educational establishment.
4. Pursuant to international agreements of the Russian Federation the State shall assist representatives of the peoples of the Russian Federation residing outside its territory in obtaining basic general education in their mother tongue.
5. The State government educational standards shall govern the matters of study of the Russian language as the official language of the Russian Federation in all State-accredited educational establishments except for pre-school ones.
6. Matters pertaining to the study of official languages of the constituent republics of the Russian Federation shall be governed by the legislation of these republics.
7. The State shall provide assistance in the training of specialists to carry out the educational process in mother languages of the peoples of the Russian Federation that have no statehood of their own.
Article 7. The State Educational Standards
1. In the Russian Federation state education standards shall be established as incorporating a federal component and a regional (ethnical-regional) component and also an educational institution component.
The Russian Federation through the Federal bodies of the State power acting within their competence defines the Federal components of the State educational standards, which establish a mandatory minimum content of the basic education syllabi, the maximum volume of the tuition load of students, requirements for the educational level of final-year students.
State educational standards may be established in respect of specific additional educational programs in a manner established by a federal law.
2. Special State educational standard can be laid down for the implementation of the education syllabi for pupils with developmental abnormalities.
3. The procedure for the drafting, approval and introduction of the State educational standards shall be laid down by the Government of the Russian Federation, except for cases for which a legal provision is made.
4. The basic provisions of the state educational standards of primary, general, basic general and secondary (complete) general education, a procedure for the elaboration and endorsement thereof shall be established by a federal law.
5. State educational standards shall be endorsed at least once in ten years.
6. The State educational standards shall be the main basis for obtaining an objective assessment of the educational level and qualifications of course leavers irrespective of forms of their education.
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