Kazan is the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan, which is a part of the Russian Federation. It is one of the largest economic, political, scientific and cultural centers of Russia.
According to the official version, which is based on the latest archeological information, the city was founded not less than 1000 years ago вby Volga Bulgars.
Kazan is a large scientific, educational and industrial center of Russia; it takes a special place both in Russian and world history and culture.
Kazan State University (earlier - Kazan Imperial University) was the second (after Moscow University) founded in Russia. 29 institutions of university level higher education, Academy of sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Kazan Center of the Academy of sciences of the Russian Federation, , as well as a system of scientific research institutes work in the city.
Kazan is an important railway, road and aircraft junction. It is the largest port on the river Volga. In 2005 the Kazan underground was opened; the President of Russia Vladimir Putin, the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, the President of Tatarstan Mintimer Shaimiev became its first passengers.
Almost perfect safety of the historical center of the city is a characteristic feature of Kazan. The historical center was built up with private residences, profitable and trading houses, and buildings of industrial and religious architecture of the XIX - the beginning of the XX century. They are former private residences of merchants and merchant dynasties: the Apanayevs, the Seidashevs, the Unzhenins, the Usmanovs, the Apakovs, the Verins, D.I.Varaksin, A.M.Muzurov, V.E.Solomin and others.